## Problem

Given an integer N, generate all primes less than or equal to N.

## Sieve of Eratosthenes - Explanation

Sieve of Eratosthenes is an algorithm that generates all prime up to N. Read this article written by +Jane Alam Jan on Generating Primes - LightOJ Tutorial. The pdf contains almost all the optimizations of Sieve of Eratosthenes.

## Code

vector<int> prime; /*Stores generated primes*/
char sieve[SIZE]; /*0 means prime*/
void primeSieve ( int n ) {
sieve[0] = sieve[1] = 1; /*0 and 1 are not prime*/

prime.push_back(2); /*Only Even Prime*/
for ( int i = 4; i <= n; i += 2 ) sieve[i] = 1; /*Remove multiples of 2*/

int sqrtn = sqrt ( n );
for ( int i = 3; i <= sqrtn; i += 2 ) {
if ( sieve[i] == 0 ) {
for ( int j = i * i; j <= n; j += 2 * i ) sieve[j] = 1;
}
}

for ( int i = 3; i <= n; i += 2 ) if ( sieve[i] == 0 ) prime.push_back(i);
}

Some lines from the code above can be omitted depending on situation. But as a whole, the above code gives us two products, a vector<int> prime which contains all generated primes and a char[] sieve that indicates whether a particular value is prime or not. We will need sieve array for optimizations in other algorithms.

## Complexity

The algorithm has runtime complexity of $O(N log (logN ) )$